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Scottish History

Timeline | Kings |Terms

Timeline
4,000 BC - First tribes came from European mainland (Mediterraneans and
           Proto-Nordic types).
         They are still pushing back the date of Pictish arrival in Scotland.
         In fact, Picts were possibly following in the wake the retreating
         glaciers around 6000 BC, which would make them the first,
         aboriginal, inhabitants.
  (See Ancient Roots for links to the Bible.)
1,700 BC - Milesians (Descendants King Milesius Spain) move to Ireland.
600 BC - Celts started arriving in Ireland
         The Celts lived in an area which today is mostly in Eastern France.
         The area stretched from roughly where Luxembourg is today to a bit
         further south than Geneva and took in parts modern day
         West Germany and Switzerland.
  300 BC - First written history of Celtic tribes (Picts in the north and
         Britons in the south) coming from western Europe into Scotland.
  100 BC - Arrival the Gaels in Ireland

  80 AD - Romans invade Scotland and call it Caledonia.
           They call the native people Picts.
 120 - Hadrian's Wall built across northern England to protect Romans from Picts.
 258 - First migration Scots from Ireland to the area around Argyle.
 397 - Roman literature describes the warring tribe based in Ireland as
       the "Scots".
 410 - United Scottish tribes attack the Romans in London
       and plunder their treasures.
 410 - Romans leave and the Celts, made up two principal groups:
       the Picts in the north and Britons in the south reclaimed the land.
       Another reference refers to the two groups as the
       Gaels (Irish, Scots and Manx) and the Britons (Welsh and Cornish).
 449 - British leader, Vortigen, invites the Jutes, Germanics from 
       Denmark, to come help  Britain defend against the Picts.
       The Jutes brought with them a horde of their racial cousins,
       including the dreaded Saxons and the Angles.
 460 - The Legendary "Arthur", King the Britons  is claimed to have led a
       band elite Celtic warriors in a struggle against the invading,
       pagan Saxons.
 4xx - Norse (Viking) settle in northern (Shetland and Orkney) and
       Western Islands.
 498 - Fergus Mor MacErc, chief the Irish tribe called Scots moved the
       royal seat Irish Dal Riada from northern Ireland to Dunnadd in Argyll.
       There are now four major Nations in Britain
==  Draw map
     —The Anglo-Saxons,  Territory extends from Portsmouth to the Forth,
      The Britons,  Kingdom Stretches from Cornwall to the Clyde
       The Picts or Caledonians, Kingdom extends from the Forth to
                                           the Pentland Frith,
       The Scots, Kingdom boundary nearly identical  with Argyleshire
 571 - Anglo-Saxon victory leading to the eventual final defeat the British.
 793 - Viking invasions start with the destruction Lindisfarne monastery.
       Invasions continue to 1100. Orkney and Shetland became Norse colonies,
       followed by the entire Hebrides and areas the mainland.
 802 - Vikings (Danes) plunder Iona.
 844 - Kenneth MacAlpin, king the Scots, establishes the kingdom
       Alba uniting the Scots and Picts.

 990 - 1060 - Many violent struggles for the Scottish throne.
       Constantine III, Kenneth III, Malcom II, Duncan I, Macbeth,
        Malcom III
1066 - Norman Conquest England begins
1080 - Malcom III introduces feudalism to Scotland
1100-1250 - Scotland fights England over control Scotland
1249-1286 - Alexander III advances Scottish life with improved roads,
            agriculture, trade and peace with England.
1296 - Edward England invades Scotland and wins the Battle Dunbar
1314 - Robert Bruce defeats an English army in the Battle Bannockburn
1320 - Scots officially declare their independence.
1328 - England recognizes Robert Bruce as King Robert I Scotland.
137? - Stuart's win struggle for leadership
1513 - James IV Stuart invades England
1542 - Mary Stuart, daughter James V,  becomes Queen Scots
1560's The Presbyterian Church becomes the national church Scotland
1567 - Mary, a Catholic, was forced by Protestants to give up her
       throne to her infant son, James VI.
== Family name for protestant rulers
1587 - Mary executed.
1603 - Elizabeth I England died and James VI inherits the English
       throne. James rules Scotland and England as separate kingdoms.
1610 - Plantations in Northern Ireland (Ulster) starts a migration of Scots
1638 - The National Covenant. A Protestant (mostly Lowland, later called
       Presbyterian) movement forms.
1642 - English Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell, turn against James son
       Charles I and Civil war breaks out in England
1649 - Charles, who has fled to Scotland, is captured and turned over to
       the Puritans, who behead him.
1650 - Cromwell defeats Charles's II forces in the Battle Dunbar.
1689 - William Orange and Mary become joint sovereigns the UK.
1689 - Highlanders, called Jacobites, who remained loyal to the Stuarts,
       start fighting against the crown.
1692 - Cambells massacre 38 MacDonald Clan members at Glencoe
       on government order.
1707 - Scottish and English parliaments pass the Act Union joining
       Scotland, Wales and England.
1715 - Jacobites lead a rebellion against English rule.
== Where?
1744 - The world's first Golf Club founded.
       (the Honourable Company Edinburgh Golfers)
1745 - Second Jacobite rebellion led by Charles Edward Stuart
       (Bonnie Prince Charlie)
1746 - Charles defeated at battle Culloden. The English execute many
       clan chiefs and outlaw kilts and bagpipes.
1759 - Robert Burns born Jan. 25 at Alloway.
1768 - The first edition the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" was
       published in Edinburgh
1785 - Highland Clearances.
1845-47 - Potato famine in Ireland caused by plant disease.


See Also: Notable Dates in Scottish History  Department Geography,
The University Edinburgh.
Scottish History Timeline at Skyelander.
Highland Clearances: Top
Defeated at Culloden in 1746, the landowners and what clan chiefs that remained became more wealthy and detached from their kinsmen.

The Highland Clearances began in 1785. An increase in the price wool and importing Cheviot sheep which required less looking after caused landlords to evict the tenants to make more room for the sheep.

At the time the highland crofters were considered by the educated english landowners to be an inferior race along with the Irish and Africans.

They were initially moved to barren plots land near the sea, called crofts. They were supposed to compensate for the poor quality the land by fishing and seaweed harvesting. There was limited space in these areas which caused problems as families grew. It was also very difficult to produce a living this way and when the potato crop failed in 1846 many were forced to emigrate to Canada, South Africa and other colonies.
Their passage was subsidized by the government.

Search for more on Highland Clearances


Scotland Kings

(Kings and dates rule)
Gnaeus Julius Agricola, Roman Govenor80 -
House Fergus or Alpin
Kenneth MacAlpin841 - 858
Donald I858 - 862
Constantine I862 - 877
Aedh877 - 878
Eochaid878 - 889
Donald II889 - 900
Constantine II900 - 942
Malcolm I943 - 954
Indulf954 - 962
Duff/Dubh962 - 966
Colin/?Culen 966 - 971
Kenneth II971 - 995
Constantine III995 - 997
Kenneth III997- 1005
Malcom II *1005-1034
Duncan I1034-1040
Macbeth (Maelbeatha)1040-1057
Lulach1057- 1058
Malcolm III1057-1093
Donald III (Bane I)1093- 1094,
1094- 1097
Duncan II1094- 1094
Edgar1097- 1107
Alexander I1107-1124
David I1124-1153
Malcolm IV1153-1165
William I 'The Lion of Scotland'1165-1214
Alexander II1214-1249
Alexander III1249-1286
Margaret "Maid of Norway"1290
John Balliol1292-1296
Robert I (Robert the Bruce)1306-1329
David II1329-1371
Edward
Robert II (A Stewart)1371-1390
Robert III1390-1406
James I1394-1437
James II1437-1460
James III1460-1488
James IV1488-1513
James V1513-1542
Mary, Queen of Scots 1542-1567
James VI1567-1625
Charles I1625-1649
Charles II 1649-1685
Cromwell1651-1658
James VII (II in England)1685-1688
William III (William of Orange)
and Mary (Stewart or Stuart) II
1689-1694
Reign of William III (IV)1694-1702
Act of Union joins
Scotland, Wales and England.
1707
RED - Ancestors of Finly Family
* McRuaidhri FINLEY Earl Moray, Chief the Clan Fionnladh, Ruled over western Scotland, was murdered in 1020 to make MALCOLM II the sole king.

Other Scottish History Pages:


Terms


Alba - Ancient name for what is now Scotland
AM - Annals of the Four Masters - It basically refers to years after creation. AM 3,500 = 1,700 BC
Angles - Angles came either from Angeln, a district in what is now Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, or from Denmark. The Angles occupied the central part of southern Britain and the northern and eastern coasts. Their territories were called Engla land, or Angle land, from which the name England came.
Britannia - England
Brittany/Normandy - northwestern France
Caledonia - Roman name for Scotland
Celts - A group of peoples who spoke languages in the Celtic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. and occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia (an area which today is mostly in Eastern France) around 1500-1000BC. See also The Celts.
Gaelic - Language spoken in the Middle Ages in Ireland and Scotland (Irish, Scots and Manx were different versions). Comprised about 1/2 of the Celtic language family.
Dalriada - A kingdom in Ireland corresponding roughly with the modern County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It was ruled by early Scots who eventually (250-500 AD) migrated to Kintyre in Scotland, eventually establishing a kingdom around Argyll, also called Dalriada. Gaul or Gallia - Roman name for area now France
Germania - Roman name for area now Germany
Gothia or Geulia - Roman name for area now Lybia

Hibrnia - Roman name for area now Ireland
Iberia or Hispania - Roman name for area now Spain
Laird - Landowner; aristocrat; (King)
Manx - Galec Language from the Isle of Man
Milesians - Tribes in Spain which moved to Ireland around 1700 BC and later to Scotland where they were called Scots by the Romans.
Mor - Title meaning "the great"
Mormaer - A Gaelic Title (Great Steward) given to the rulers of the seven provinces of Celtic Scotland.
Saxons - Saxons were a warlike people wholived in what is now the state of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany. By the close of the 6th century all northwest Germany as far east as the Elbe River had become Saxon territory.
Sept - Branch of a Clan (Finley is a Sept of Clan Farquharson)
Shaw - Derived from Gaeli word Scach or Saidh, pronounced Shah or Shaw, and means ruler or Military Leader
Tara - A prehistoric burial site in County Meath, famed as the legendary capital of the high kings of Ireland
Thane - A landowner of high rank; the chief of a clan. Originates in the society of Anglo-Saxon England. In the seventh century, the holder of this position was known as a gesith, literally the kings companion, with a rank above that of the peasant or ceorl, and with a wereguild of 1,200 shillings.
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Thesaurus terms for Nobility
Glossary


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last updated 18 Dec 2001