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Timeline 4,000 BC - First tribes came from European mainland (Mediterraneans and Proto-Nordic types). They are still pushing back the date of Pictish arrival in Scotland. In fact, Picts were possibly following in the wake the retreating glaciers around 6000 BC, which would make them the first, aboriginal, inhabitants. (See Ancient Roots for links to the Bible.) 1,700 BC - Milesians (Descendants King Milesius Spain) move to Ireland. 600 BC - Celts started arriving in Ireland The Celts lived in an area which today is mostly in Eastern France. The area stretched from roughly where Luxembourg is today to a bit further south than Geneva and took in parts modern day West Germany and Switzerland. 300 BC - First written history of Celtic tribes (Picts in the north and Britons in the south) coming from western Europe into Scotland. 100 BC - Arrival the Gaels in Ireland 80 AD - Romans invade Scotland and call it Caledonia. They call the native people Picts. 120 - Hadrian's Wall built across northern England to protect Romans from Picts. 258 - First migration Scots from Ireland to the area around Argyle. 397 - Roman literature describes the warring tribe based in Ireland as the "Scots". 410 - United Scottish tribes attack the Romans in London and plunder their treasures. 410 - Romans leave and the Celts, made up two principal groups: the Picts in the north and Britons in the south reclaimed the land. Another reference refers to the two groups as the Gaels (Irish, Scots and Manx) and the Britons (Welsh and Cornish). 449 - British leader, Vortigen, invites the Jutes, Germanics from Denmark, to come help Britain defend against the Picts. The Jutes brought with them a horde of their racial cousins, including the dreaded Saxons and the Angles. 460 - The Legendary "Arthur", King the Britons is claimed to have led a band elite Celtic warriors in a struggle against the invading, pagan Saxons. 4xx - Norse (Viking) settle in northern (Shetland and Orkney) and Western Islands. 498 - Fergus Mor MacErc, chief the Irish tribe called Scots moved the royal seat Irish Dal Riada from northern Ireland to Dunnadd in Argyll. There are now four major Nations in Britain == Draw map —The Anglo-Saxons, Territory extends from Portsmouth to the Forth, The Britons, Kingdom Stretches from Cornwall to the Clyde The Picts or Caledonians, Kingdom extends from the Forth to the Pentland Frith, The Scots, Kingdom boundary nearly identical with Argyleshire 571 - Anglo-Saxon victory leading to the eventual final defeat the British. 793 - Viking invasions start with the destruction Lindisfarne monastery. Invasions continue to 1100. Orkney and Shetland became Norse colonies, followed by the entire Hebrides and areas the mainland. 802 - Vikings (Danes) plunder Iona. 844 - Kenneth MacAlpin, king the Scots, establishes the kingdom Alba uniting the Scots and Picts. 990 - 1060 - Many violent struggles for the Scottish throne. Constantine III, Kenneth III, Malcom II, Duncan I, Macbeth, Malcom III 1066 - Norman Conquest England begins 1080 - Malcom III introduces feudalism to Scotland 1100-1250 - Scotland fights England over control Scotland 1249-1286 - Alexander III advances Scottish life with improved roads, agriculture, trade and peace with England. 1296 - Edward England invades Scotland and wins the Battle Dunbar 1314 - Robert Bruce defeats an English army in the Battle Bannockburn 1320 - Scots officially declare their independence. 1328 - England recognizes Robert Bruce as King Robert I Scotland. 137? - Stuart's win struggle for leadership 1513 - James IV Stuart invades England 1542 - Mary Stuart, daughter James V, becomes Queen Scots 1560's The Presbyterian Church becomes the national church Scotland 1567 - Mary, a Catholic, was forced by Protestants to give up her throne to her infant son, James VI. == Family name for protestant rulers 1587 - Mary executed. 1603 - Elizabeth I England died and James VI inherits the English throne. James rules Scotland and England as separate kingdoms. 1610 - Plantations in Northern Ireland (Ulster) starts a migration of Scots 1638 - The National Covenant. A Protestant (mostly Lowland, later called Presbyterian) movement forms. 1642 - English Puritans, led by Oliver Cromwell, turn against James son Charles I and Civil war breaks out in England 1649 - Charles, who has fled to Scotland, is captured and turned over to the Puritans, who behead him. 1650 - Cromwell defeats Charles's II forces in the Battle Dunbar. 1689 - William Orange and Mary become joint sovereigns the UK. 1689 - Highlanders, called Jacobites, who remained loyal to the Stuarts, start fighting against the crown. 1692 - Cambells massacre 38 MacDonald Clan members at Glencoe on government order. 1707 - Scottish and English parliaments pass the Act Union joining Scotland, Wales and England. 1715 - Jacobites lead a rebellion against English rule. == Where? 1744 - The world's first Golf Club founded. (the Honourable Company Edinburgh Golfers) 1745 - Second Jacobite rebellion led by Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) 1746 - Charles defeated at battle Culloden. The English execute many clan chiefs and outlaw kilts and bagpipes. 1759 - Robert Burns born Jan. 25 at Alloway. 1768 - The first edition the "Encyclopaedia Britannica" was published in Edinburgh 1785 - Highland Clearances. 1845-47 - Potato famine in Ireland caused by plant disease. See Also: Notable Dates in Scottish History Department Geography, The University Edinburgh.
The Highland Clearances began in 1785. An increase in the price wool and importing Cheviot sheep which required less looking after caused landlords to evict the tenants to make more room for the sheep.
At the time the highland crofters were considered by the educated english landowners to be an inferior race along with the Irish and Africans.
They were initially moved to barren plots land near the sea, called crofts.
They were supposed to compensate for the poor quality the land by fishing and seaweed harvesting. There was limited space in these areas which caused problems as families grew.
It was also very difficult to produce a living this way and when the potato crop failed in 1846 many were forced
to emigrate to Canada, South Africa and other colonies.
Search for more on Highland Clearances
Scotland Kings(Kings and dates rule)
* McRuaidhri FINLEY Earl Moray, Chief the Clan Fionnladh, Ruled over western Scotland, was murdered in 1020 to make MALCOLM II the sole king.
Other Scottish History Pages:
Alba - Ancient name for what is now Scotland
AM - Annals of the Four Masters - It basically refers to years after creation. AM 3,500 = 1,700 BC
Angles - Angles came either from Angeln, a district in what is now Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, or from Denmark. The Angles occupied the central part of southern Britain and the northern and eastern coasts. Their territories were called Engla land, or Angle land, from which the name England came.
Britannia - England
Brittany/Normandy - northwestern France
Caledonia - Roman name for Scotland
Celts - A group of peoples who spoke languages in the Celtic branch of the Indo-European family of languages. and occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia (an area which today is mostly in Eastern France) around 1500-1000BC. See also The Celts.
Gaelic - Language spoken in the Middle Ages in Ireland and Scotland (Irish, Scots and Manx were different versions). Comprised about 1/2 of the Celtic language family.
Dalriada - A kingdom in Ireland corresponding roughly with the modern County Antrim in Northern Ireland. It was ruled by early Scots who eventually (250-500 AD) migrated to Kintyre in Scotland, eventually establishing a kingdom around Argyll, also called Dalriada. Gaul or Gallia - Roman name for area now France
Germania - Roman name for area now Germany
Gothia or Geulia - Roman name for area now Lybia
Hibrnia - Roman name for area now Ireland
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